Atlantis is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Platos works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges 'Ancient Athens', the pseudo-historic embodiment of Platos ideal state in The Republic. In the story, Athens repels the Atlantean attack unlike any other nation of the known world, supposedly giving testament to the superiority of Platos concept of a state. The story concludes with Atlantis falling out of favor with the deities and submerging into the Atlantic Ocean.
Despite its minor importance in Platos work, the Atlantis story has had a considerable impact on literature. The allegorical aspect of Atlantis was taken up in utopian works of several Renaissance writers, such as Francis Bacons New Atlantis and Thomas Mores Utopia. On the other hand, nineteenth-century amateur scholars misinterpreted Platos narrative as historical tradition, most notably in Ignatius L. Donnellys Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. Platos vague indications of the time of the events—more than 9,000 years before his time —and the alleged location of Atlantis— 'beyond the Pillars of Hercules' —has led to much pseudoscientific speculation. As a consequence, Atlantis has become a byword for any and all supposed advanced prehistoric lost civilizations and continues to inspire contemporary fiction, from comic books to films.
While present-day philologists and classicists agree on the storys fictional character, there is still debate on what served as its inspiration. As for instance with the story of Gyges, Plato is known to have freely borrowed some of his allegories and metaphors from older traditions. This led a number of scholars to investigate possible inspiration of Atlantis from Egyptian records of the Thera eruption, the Sea Peoples invasion, or the Trojan War. Others have rejected this chain of tradition as implausible and insist that Plato created an entirely fictional nation as his example, drawing loose inspiration from contemporary events such as the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC or the destruction of Helike in 373 BC.